They countered any claims of inherent class conflict with the ideology of social mobility. Middle-class owners and managers justified their economic privilege as the natural product of superior character traits, including decision making and hard work. What a mistaken view do these men have of Northern labourers! They think that men are always to remain labourers here—but there is no such class. The man who laboured for another last year, this year labours for himself. And next year he will hire others to labour for him. In the first half of the nineteenth century, families in the northern United States increasingly participated in the cash economy created by the market revolution.
The first stirrings of industrialization shifted work away from the home. The market revolution therefore not only transformed the economy, it changed the nature of the American family. As the market revolution thrust workers into new systems of production, it redefined gender roles. The market integrated families into a new cash economy. Women and children worked to supplement the low wages of many male workers. The ideal of an innocent and protected childhood was a privilege for middle- and upper-class families, who might look down upon poor families.
Meanwhile, the education received by middle-class children provided a foundation for future economic privilege. As artisans lost control over their trades, young men had a greater incentive to invest time in education to find skilled positions later in life.
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Formal schooling was especially important for young men who desired apprenticeships in retail or commercial work. University of Virginia. Education equipped young women with the tools to live sophisticated, genteel lives. Middle-class youths found opportunities for respectable employment through formal education, but poor youths remained in marginalized positions. When pauper children did receive teaching through institutions such the House of Refuge in New York City, they were often simultaneously indentured to successful families to serve as field hands or domestic laborers.
During the market revolution, however, more children were able to postpone employment. As these children matured, their early experiences often determined whether they entered respectable, well-paying positions or became dependent workers with little prospects for social mobility.
Just as children were expected to be sheltered from the adult world of work, American culture expected men and women to assume distinct gender roles as they prepared for marriage and family life. Even nonworking women labored by shopping for the household, producing food and clothing, cleaning, educating children, and performing similar activities. While reality muddied the ideal, the divide between a private, female world of home and a public, male world of business defined American gender hierarchy. The idea of separate spheres also displayed a distinct class bias.
Women were to be mothers and educators, not partners in production. But lower-class women continued to contribute directly to the household economy. The middle- and upper-class ideal was feasible only in households where women did not need to engage in paid labor. In poorer households, women engaged in wage labor as factory workers, pieceworkers producing items for market consumption, tavern- and innkeepers, and domestic servants.
While many of the fundamental tasks women performed remained the same—producing clothing, cultivating vegetables, overseeing dairy production, and performing any number of other domestic labors—the key difference was whether and when they performed these tasks for cash in a market economy. Cloth production, for instance, advanced throughout the market revolution as new mechanized production increased the volume and variety of fabrics available to ordinary people. This relieved many better-off women of a traditional labor obligation.
Purchasing cloth and, later, ready-made clothes began to transform women from producers to consumers. One woman from Maine, Martha Ballard, regularly referenced spinning, weaving, and knitting in the diary she kept from to The production of cloth and clothing was a year-round, labor-intensive process, but it was for home consumption, not commercial markets.
In cities, where women could buy cheap imported cloth to turn into clothing, they became skilled consumers. They stewarded money earned by their husbands by comparing values and haggling over prices. In one typical experience, Mrs. While servants or slaves routinely made low-value purchases, the mistress of the household trusted her discriminating eye alone for expensive or specific purchases.
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Women might also parlay their skills into businesses. In addition to working as seamstresses, milliners, or laundresses, women might undertake paid work for neighbors or acquaintances or combine clothing production with management of a boardinghouse. Even slaves with particular skill at producing clothing could be hired out for a higher price or might even negotiate to work part-time for themselves. Most slaves, however, continued to produce domestic items, including simpler cloths and clothing, for home consumption.
Smithsonian American Art Museum. Similar domestic expectations played out in the slave states. Enslaved women labored in the fields. Whites argued that African American women were less delicate and womanly than white women and therefore perfectly suited for agricultural labor. The southern ideal meanwhile established that white plantation mistresses were shielded from manual labor because of their very whiteness.
Throughout the slave states, however, aside from the minority of plantations with dozens of slates, most white women by necessity continued to assist with planting, harvesting, and processing agricultural projects despite the cultural stigma attached to it. White southerners continued to produce large portions of their food and clothing at home. Even when they were market-oriented producers of cash crops, white southerners still insisted that their adherence to plantation slavery and racial hierarchy made them morally superior to greedy northerners and their callous, cutthroat commerce.
Southerners and northerners increasingly saw their ways of life as incompatible. Upon marriage, women were rendered legally dead by the notion of coverture, the custom that counted married couples as a single unit represented by the husband. Without special precautions or interventions, women could not earn their own money, own their own property, sue, or be sued. Any money earned or spent belonged by law to their husbands.
Although a handful of states made divorce available—divorce had before only been legal in Congregationalist states such as Massachusetts and Connecticut, where marriage was strictly a civil contract rather than a religious one—it remained extremely expensive, difficult, and rare. Marriage was typically a permanently binding legal contract. Ideas of marriage, if not the legal realities, began to change. But in the late eighteenth century, under the influence of Enlightenment thought, young people began to privilege character and compatibility in their potential partners.
Money was still essential: marriages prompted the largest redistributions of property prior to the settling of estates at death. But the means of this redistribution was changing. Especially in the North, land became a less important foundation for matchmaking as wealthy young men became not only farmers and merchants but bankers, clerks, or professionals.
The increased emphasis on affection and attraction that young people embraced was facilitated by an increasingly complex economy that offered new ways to store, move, and create wealth, which liberalized the criteria by which families evaluated potential in-laws. To be considered a success in family life, a middle-class American man typically aspired to own a comfortable home and to marry a woman of strong morals and religious conviction who would take responsibility for raising virtuous, well-behaved children.
The duties of the middle-class husband and wife would be clearly delineated into separate spheres. The husband alone was responsible for creating wealth and engaging in the commerce and politics—the public sphere. The wife was responsible for the private—keeping a good home, being careful with household expenses, and raising children, inculcating them with the middle-class virtues that would ensure their future success. But for poor families, sacrificing the potential economic contributions of wives and children was an impossibility.
More than five million immigrants arrived in the United States between and Irish, German, and Jewish immigrants sought new lives and economic opportunities. A series of push and pull factors drew immigrants to the United States.
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In England, an economic slump prompted Parliament to modernize British agriculture by revoking common land rights for Irish farmers. These policies generally targeted Catholics in the southern counties of Ireland and motivated many to seek greater opportunity elsewhere. The booming American economy pulled Irish immigrants toward ports along the eastern United States. Between and , over , Irish immigrants arrived in the United States. Irish men usually emigrated alone and, when possible, practiced what became known as chain migration.
Chain migration allowed Irish men to send portions of their wages home, which would then be used either to support their families in Ireland or to purchase tickets for relatives to come to the United States. Irish immigration followed this pattern into the s and s, when the infamous Irish Famine sparked a massive exodus out of Ireland. Between and , 1. Despite hostility, Irish immigrants retained their social, cultural, and religious beliefs and left an indelible mark on American culture.
While the Irish settled mostly in coastal cities, most German immigrants used American ports and cities as temporary waypoints before settling in the rural countryside. Over 1. Although some southern Germans fled declining agricultural conditions and repercussions of the failed revolutions of , many Germans simply sought steadier economic opportunity. German immigrants tended to travel as families and carried with them skills and capital that enabled them to enter middle-class trades.
Germans migrated to the Old Northwest to farm in rural areas and practiced trades in growing communities such as St.
Louis, Cincinnati, and Milwaukee, three cities that formed what came to be called the German Triangle. Catholic and Jewish Germans transformed regions of the republic. Jewish immigrants hailing from southwestern Germany and parts of occupied Poland moved to the United States through chain migration and as family units.
Unlike other Germans, Jewish immigrants rarely settled in rural areas. Once established, Jewish immigrants found work in retail, commerce, and artisanal occupations such as tailoring. They quickly found their footing and established themselves as an intrinsic part of the American market economy. Just as Irish immigrants shaped the urban landscape through the construction of churches and Catholic schools, Jewish immigrants erected synagogues and made their mark on American culture. The sudden influx of immigration triggered a backlash among many native-born Anglo-Protestant Americans.
This nativist movement, especially fearful of the growing Catholic presence, sought to limit European immigration and prevent Catholics from establishing churches and other institutions. Popular in northern cities such as Boston, Chicago, Philadelphia, and other cities with large Catholic populations, nativism even spawned its own political party in the s. The American Party, more commonly known as the Know-Nothing Party, found success in local and state elections throughout the North.
The party even nominated candidates for president in and The rapid rise of the Know-Nothings, reflecting widespread anti-Catholic and anti-immigrant sentiment, slowed European immigration. Immigration declined precipitously after as nativism, the Crimean War, and improving economic conditions in Europe discouraged potential migrants from traveling to the United States.
Only after the American Civil War would immigration levels match and eventually surpass the levels seen in the s and s. In industrial northern cities, Irish immigrants swelled the ranks of the working class and quickly encountered the politics of industrial labor. Many workers formed trade unions during the early republic.
These unions worked to protect the economic power of their members by creating closed shops—workplaces wherein employers could only hire union members—and striking to improve working conditions. Political leaders denounced these organizations as unlawful combinations and conspiracies to promote the narrow self-interest of workers above the rights of property holders and the interests of the common good. As a result, we move through our lives feeling lost and out of control.
The balance we need can only be achieved as we endeavor to live with a regenerated spirit, think with a renewed mind, and maintain a rejuvenated body. It is only when the different aspects of our existential reality synchronize with each other under the umbrella of the Holy Spirit that balanced living begins to take shape and abundance becomes inevitable. The right balance will help us to have peace in the midst of uncertainty, physical wellness when existential crises abound, and joy when the tragedies of life knock on the door of our hearts.
The more balanced we are the more we have to offer to this unbalanced world. A balanced life is lived with transparency and integrity. It is based on honesty with self and with God. Blessings, welcome to Disciple Maker Ministry, please browse around and enjoy your experience. Consuming organic, quality foods and water in their Simple Pure Whole TM forms helps you feel clear-headed, physically energized and full of vitality!
A great option to discover your personalize nourishment style and stay balanced is to participate in my whole foods-based Recharge Experience! This fully customizable, supported experience can be done virtually from anywhere in the world. We will work together to develop an individualized day comprehensive plan to rejuvenate and build a strong foundation for sustainable life-long wellness!
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To start to break through the confusion and reconnect with instinctual eating, check out some of my top Simple Pure Whole TM Solutions for returning to a more instinctual way of eating! Cooking at home is a great way to experience new flavors and infuse your meals with positive energy and intention. Try to focus on eating simple, natural organic ingredients in their whole forms instead of eating less or counting calories.
Experiment with new flavors or real food recipes to cook at home to incorporate more real, whole foods into your life! One way to add flavor and nutrition is with spices! Snacking is central to many of our favorite social gatherings.
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It can help satisfy our hunger, provide an energy boost between meals and give us a chance to enjoy delicious food with friends and family. Choosing nutritious real food snacks is also a great way to curb cravings and avoid munching away mindlessly. Buying organic and seasonal produce is one way to eat clean and avoid pesticide contamination.
It is a great opportunity to experiment with new foods and try a variety of nourishing ingredients. You can find more real, local and sustainable food resources new you here. One of the best tools available for consumers is made available by the Environmental Working Group. Stress comes in many forms throughout our daily lives.
Many of us are so busy and rush about. We can become caught up in the daily grind, overwhelmed, burned out, anxious and stressed. Our modern society is so focused on working harder and longer, acquiring possessions and achieving titles that we often forget about and lose touch with our true nature—that wise, beautiful, loving and vibrant being within each of us.
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It involves a normal set of emotional, physical and cognitive reactions to a changing, demanding environment that can either enhance our ability to handle change or impair our coping when we become overwhelmed. This constant state of stress prevents us from enjoying life as we strive to do more, get more and be more. We forget about the simple pleasures and blessings in our lives.
Resilience is the ability to successfully adapt in the face of adversity and demands. In this way, we can handle the inevitable stressors in life without suffering the negative physical and emotional impacts. As you learn inspirational strategies for releasing fear, cultivating mindfulness, allowing gratitude, finding forgiveness and inviting love to flow towards yourself and others you will build resiliency and a toolkit for life.
Each chapter introduces a core inspirational concept which is crucial to vibrant health and a fulfilled, authentic and balanced life. Exemplifying these concepts, associated wellness prescriptions provide an action plan to guide you in cultivating balance, nourishing your best self, unlocking your potential and achieving enhanced mindfulness. Each practical prescription takes only a few moments to read and begin to implement but has profound and long-lasting impacts on your health and wellbeing. As you shift your mindset to make yourself your own priority, you will go from depletion to fulfillment.
You will notice miraculous shifts in your thoughts, words, actions and energy. Commit to small, daily steps towards repatterning your thoughts and reframing your emotions. The breathing exercises and guided relaxation experiences presented in this valuable resource can be used anywhere, at any time of day. As you regularly practice these simple breathing exercises, it will begin to feel natural to turn to the breath when you are faced with stress.
Stress has a significant impact on our body and health.