A synod held at Laodicea, , decreed:.
Three Verses From the Te Deum scored for Organ Solo
In one of these, the author answers the objection that S. Paul Eph. In another he quotes a treatise of Cyprian [ Ep. This throws light on the extent of his reading, and is an interesting parallel to the quotation of Cyprian "On Mortality," in the Te Deum. Though the writer distinguishes his people from Easterns, his list of the canticles sung at their services exactly corresponds with Eastern usage.
Morin shows this by an interesting list:. It will be seen that the list of Niceta agrees with that of Constantinople with two exceptions, the inversion of the order Isaiah, Habbakuk, and the addition of Jeremiah, which is possibly a point of connection with the Gallican list. In fact, the internal evidence of these tracts exactly fits in with the words which Paulinus of Nola used about his friend. He anticipated much pleasure from the enjoyment of Niceta's gifts as a hymn writer, beside whom he felt himself poor.
Gennadius and Cassiodorus praise the writings of Niceta for their brevity, and the clearness and simplicity of their style. The same characteristics are certainly found in the Te Deum to a marked degree. The effect that the whole composition has on the mind is felt to be strong. But this is through the grandeur and rapidity of the thoughts that are expressed, rather than from mere brilliancy of expression. The parallels to the Te Deum scattered in the writings of Niceta are not perhaps so striking as one could wish, but they show that his mind was working on similar lines.
In emus gloriam etiam angeli prospicere concupiscunt; qui et sedes et dominationes uniuersasque coelorum uirtutes sua maiestate sanctificat. In the same sermon he writes of patriarchs, prophets, apostles, martyrs, and the just, as united with angels in one church.
CHAPTER XI - THE TE DEUM
Gennadius gives one title, de fide unicae maiestatis, for the treatises on the faith, and on the Holy Spirit, in which maiestas is repeatedly used of the Godhead. The immensitas of God's works is spoken of in a way that implies that the writer would argue back to the immensitas of His Being. He speaks of Christ as uerus dei filius Mai, p.
He uses the title spiritum sanctum paraclitum Mai, p. Mai, p. For the thoughts worked out in the whole of this section of the hymn, we may compare de Psalmodiae Bono. Nam et generatio eius exprimitur, et rejectio plebis impiae et gentium credulitas nominatur. Uirtutes domini cantantur, passio ueneranda depingitur, resurrectio gloriosa monstratur, sedisse quoque ad dexteram non tacetur. Tune deinde igneus domina manifestatur aduentus, terribile de uiuis ac mortuis iudicium panditur. Quid plura? Etiam Spiritus [ Cod. Vat, XPS.
Post quae erit in gloriam domini sempiternam iustorum regnum impiorum perenne supplicium. This theory of the authorship has also the merit that it offers an explanation of the fragment of an original Greek version, which has been preserved in four MSS. Niceta must have been competent to translate it himself, and we may even hope some day to find the rest of the version. The absence of a verb in verse 2 should be noted. Either the MS.
These ten verses are all that remain at present of the original. The attempts made in some MSS. The word "sources" is a convenient term, which we may use generally to include any parallel passages in Christian literature of the period to which we have traced the Te Deum. If they were not the actual source of the author's thoughts, they at all events represent the current teaching of his age. First among them we may set the Gloria in excelsis, which in its earliest form can be traced back to the fourth century. The earliest Greek MS. But it is also found in part in the treatise de Virginitate [Robertson, Athanasius , p.
In the Apostolic Constitutions, vii. This version of the text offers an illustration of the way in which the writer, known as Ps. Ignatius, "has taken and simply manipulated it to square with his curious views and terminology. Brightman, to whom I am indebted for a list of parallels in the work of this person, which I will quote after the version. The following is the form found in the Apostolic Constitutions. As it really depends on one MS. X , I will quote it separately from Lagarde's edition:- X. Vindobonensis gr. Parisinus gr. The following parallels show that "in all but two details the language of the version is thoroughly characteristic of Ps.
I owe this information also to Mr. It is beside my purpose to enter into a full discussion of the earlier history of the Gloria. Having shown that there is reason to believe that it was used in Antioch in , when Niceta probably visited that city, there seems to be no incongruity in the suggestion that he may have taken it as the model of his hymn.
Then follows in the Gloria, as in the Te Deum, the enumeration of worshippers, leading up to a short creed. It is important to note that in the earliest text of the Gloria, in both versions, mention of the Holy Spirit is inserted here instead of the last sentence. It is possible that the double insertion found in the Bangor Antiphonary implies that the original text had neither, that mention of the Holy Spirit was only thought of after the Macedonian controversy. But in that case it is difficult to believe that the interpolator would have been content with the simple words, "and the Holy Spirit," without adding the epithets familiar in the teaching of the fourth century, such as "Paraclete," which was indeed used by Niceta in his hymn.
I regard the first mention, therefore, as primitive, and the second as an interpolation, which is the more marked because it obscures the fact that the last words are a quotation from Phil. It is by a mere accident that the first mention has dropped out of our text. Then follows an address to Christ, ending with a threefold prayer for mercy. This finds a parallel in the modern text of the Te Deu m, but in the present uncertainty about the original text, to which these antiphons may not have belonged, this point cannot be pressed.
If this theory, that the structure of the Te Deum was moulded on the lines of the Gloria, be accepted, some con? And it fits in with a suggestion made by Zahn [Art. This hymn begins with the Psalm verse, Laudate pueri dominum, familiar to us in the so-called Irish text of the Te Deum. And it ends with some words of praise, Te decet laus.
In MSS. Oxford Bodl. Canon But, unfortunately, no MS. The parallels are indeed so close that Dr. Gibson was able to argue with much force that, "whoever he was, the compiler of the hymn moved naturally and easily in the circle of phrases and expressions found in the fragments that remain to us of the Gallican Liturgy, but not found in that of the Church of Borne; and that the source on which he drew must have been the Eucharistic service of his Church, and more especially the variable Contestatio or Preface.
We can only say that it is probable that these prayers are as old or older than the Te Deum, and with reference to the new theory of authorship it may be pointed out that there are more parallels to the Gothic Missal than to either of the Gallican books. Does that represent the Liturgy used in Dacia? James, where mention is made of "the heavens," "prophets," "martyrs and apostles," with "angels," "Cherubim and Seraphim.
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Laudate pueri Dominum laudate nomen Domini To God the Father, a hymn of praise from things visible and invisible. Saluum fac populum tuum Domine et benedic hsereditati tua, et rege eos et extolle illos usque in aeternum. Capitellum of the Gloria in Excelsis. Per singulos dies benedicimus te, et laudamus nomen tuum in saeculum et in saeculum saeculi. From antiphons of the Gloria in excelsis or Preces in the Daily Office. Dignare Domine die isto sine peccato nos custodire. Miserere nobis, Domine, miserere nobis. In the Irish version, suggested by its use twice during the Fraction in the Celtic Liturgy?
Fiat misericordia tua Domine super nos, quemadmodum sperauimus in te. Found in the Bangor Antiphonary as the opening clause of a prayer after Gloria in excelsis. In te, Domine, speraui non confundar in aeternum. Tibi um Deo in Trinitate debitas laudes et gratias referamus ut te incessabili uoce laudare mereamur per aeterna saecula. Verses It is rendered necessary by the tuum of verse And it is confirmed by the analogy of the train of thought in the Gloria in excelsis, the first part of which is addressed to the Father.
Since both canticles may be said to have been composed in the same age, this argument from analogy is quite independent of the theory that a closer relationship existed between them. Gibson has indeed pointed attention to a remarkable parallel in the first quotation from the Missale Gothicum given above p. Dignum et iustum est If, on other grounds, it were possible to believe that the whole is a hymn to Christ, this would be a remarkable confirmation of it. But no reasonable explanation has ever been given of aeternum Patrem as addressed to Christ.
Another argument has been sought in the wording of an ancient hymn to Christ, which is undeniably moulded by the thought of the Te Deum throughout [Daniel, Thesaurus, i. It begins: "Christe Rex coeli. On the other hand, a curious rendering of the hymn into Latin hexameters by Candidus, a monk of Fulda under Ratgar, , leaves no doubt as to the opinion held in the ninth century [ Mon.
Lat, aeui Carolini, ed. Duemmler, ii. I owe this reference to Dr. Verses ? The Church confesses the glory and mystery of the incarnation, echoing the creed as the ground of her petition to be granted grace now and glory hereafter. The outline of the Apostles' Creed is followed closely in the references to the nativity, passion, resurrection, session, and return to Judgment. Here the original hymn ends, a fact which is brought out very clearly by an interesting Irish text printed by Rev. Warren from a MS. It was the work probably of an Irish nun, and contains a Litany and other prayers.
Among them without title are introduced verses of the Te Deum. In this attempt to reconstruct the original text of the hymn in the light of the new theory, we assume that Niceta sent or brought it to Italy, possibly in time to be sung by S. Augustine in , or in the last decade of the century.
Paulinus may have passed it on to his friends at Lerins. Our debt to the Irish version, which has preserved the author's name and the opening antiphon and the tradition respecting the limits of the original hymn, must not tempt us to regard it as necessarily the purest text. Its corruptions, however, are easily explained.
The other texts omit uniuersa, and for honore read maiestatis gloriae tuae, pl or in the Milan version " gloriae maiestatis tuae. Tolet, iv. To a scribe it might seem to introduce a familiar thought, and it was a less unwieldy phrase than maiestatis. To fill up the line, he or someone else would introduce universa. The order of the Milan version glorias maiestatis is found in the Mozarabic text of the Te Deum.
But the familiar idea in Christian worship is to give glory, and it seems more natural to predicate majesty of glory than the contrary. There is an interesting parallel sentence in the sermon of Hilary of Aries, which he preached after the death of Honoratus, the founder of Lerins;. We have therefore early authority for the phrase in this order "majesty of glory" apart from the question of the text of the hymn, and apart also from the fact that "maiestatis gloriae tusae " pl makes a better rhythmical ending.
In verse 12 the Irish version in all MSS. This is a case in which the copyists would be misled by remembrance of the Apostles' Creed, in which unigenitum is rare, though found in the Creed of Cyprian of Toulon, an early witness to the Te Deum. Unicum, on the other hand, is common in the creed. The rhythm is decisive in favour of unigenitum. New light has been thrown upon it by the publication of the letter of Cyprian of Toulon, to which reference has been made [P.
Thus it was not a mere pedantic correction made by Abbo of Fleury in the tenth century. The Irish text adds mundum after liberandum, with suscepisti for suscepturus. It has been suggested that mundum may have dropped out through homoeoteleuton. It will be naturally asked by any who have taken the trouble to read what has been said above, whether the con- siderations which I have advanced about the Te Deutn do not in some degree touch also the other canticles or any of them ; and I propose to devote a few lines to satisfying this inquiry.
It will be remembered that the points to which I have drawn attention are : i origin or authorship, a question which touches the Te Deutn alone ; 2 formal structure, poetical, rhythmical, or metrical, as we please to call it, and the consequent manner of singing ; 3 division into para- graphs of changing thought, and the accordant changes of music ; 4 casual points of literary interest in the words or phrases of the original or of the English version ; to these will have to be added presently a fifth, which did not arise with respect to the Te Deum, Form, and Manner of Singing.
As regards form — it has been already stated that the antiphonal or amcebean distich or tristich is the all but universal " ground form " of the Psalms, and therefore, of course, of all those three canticles. The single exception is Benedicite, omnia opera, which needs a form of music and singing to suit it, somewhat different from ordinary chanting. Like Psalm cxxxvi. There is, however, very ancient authority in the old Salisbury use, for rendering the Benedicite antiphonal, and adapted to ordinary chants, and at the same time relieving it of what to many persons seems a trying monotony.
The full refrain is only appointed to be sung in those three verses i, i8, 27 which open a fresh paragraph, and in the final verse. The other verses are coupled together in pairs as verse and response without the refrain, thus : — I. Benedicite aquae omnes quae super ccelos sunt Domino : Benedicite omnes virtutes Domini Domino. It should be noticed that the three verses lO, ii, 12 of Psalm cxxxv. I have ventured, in the following reprints of the Canticles, to give, as an alternative, a form of the Benedicite which, taking its cue from this ancient use, goes slightly beyond it in one direction and stops short of it in another, dropping out " Benedicite Domino," as well as the refrain, from all the intermediate verses, but replacing both at the close of every four lines.
Tone viii. Him for ev-er. Verses 3, 7, 11, 15, 20, 24, O ye Heavens r Verses 4, 8, 12, 16, 21, 25, Verses 5, 9, 13, 17, 22, 26, For the other verses, see pp. In our VenitCy ver. The three songs of Zacharias, The Blessed Virgin, and The Other Canticles, 35 Simeon, though coming down to us in Greek, were, it is impossible to doubt, originally uttered and recorded in Hebrew or Aramaic, and in the responsive form. The structure of the first of the three, the Benedictus, is somewhat obscured in the Greek.
Bishop Jebb, in his " Sacred Literature," has a very interesting chapter upon the structure of this song, and offers a very ingenious solu- tion of its complicated grammatical transitions, suggesting that it was composed for a double chorus, the several strophes of which have become interlaced in transcription. It so happens, however, that these grammatical changes do not betray themselves in the English version, and for our purpose may be ignored, the sense running on without any obvious interruption.
But the responsiveness fails in our version at the sixth and seventh verses ; and these also may be taken as one : " To perform the oath which He sware to our forefather Abraham : even that He would give grant to us that we being delivered out of the hand of our enemies, might serve Him without fear. Altogether this canticle, though sufficiently antiphonal to make it certain that it had that form origi- nally, affords, especially in the Greek, less certain indications than the others of the true parallelism of the lines.
The Nunc Dimittis requires also its one correction, which, as in all the previous cases, consists in rejoining the wrongly separated halves of one verse. This canticle really has but three full verses : 1. Lastly, the pointing of the Gloria Patri, as it stands in the Prayer-book, must submit to be condemned with the rest and for the same reason. This doxology is but one whole verse, and there should be no points or colons dividing each half of it into two. There is no antiphony between the name of the Holy Spirit and those of the Father and the Son ; but there is antiphony between an ascription of glory to the Holy Trinity, and the corroborative or intensive reply that such was and is and ever shall be to all eternity ascribed.
The OtJier Canticles. The Prayer-book itself acknowledges this by expressly calling the second whole line the " answer " to the first in those places where this doxology occurs alone. The Athanasian Creed is sometimes called the Psalm Quicunque vult, and is always pointed for chanting, as if it were antiphonal in structure ; but if it be so at all — and it is certainly not so throughout — it has been wrongly pointed in exactly the same way as the Te Deum, and needs the same coupling of each two verses in one to set it right; except w.
Perhaps they might be recited in monotone, the Gloria Patri taking up the chant again at the close. Let me repeat here — lest the reader should be astonished and even indignant at the boldness of a proposal to in- fringe even thus sparingly upon the patent royal, so to say, of the sealed copies of our Prayer-book, by shifting the "points" — that there is no hand of known authority to which the present punctuation can be traced ; it is not improbable that under pressure of graver questions it was left very much to the copyist or printers' sagacity.
The recognition which it may claim from the title-page, need be held to go no further than the general principle, and in the letter it does not touch the Canticles. See note at the end. If the reader should be disposed to regard the method of chanting by half verses, and even the slight corrections of our received pointing to accord with it, as impracticable, both as regards the execution of it by choirs, and the 38 The Other Canticles. Changes of Thought and of Music in Accord- ance Therewith. As with the Te Deuniy so with all the other Canticles and as Dr.
Westcott has shown in his excellent little " Paragraph Psalter " with all the Psalms, a very great, and to some persons indispensable, assistance to the under- standing and application of the whole is to be sought in resolving it into its component parts or paragraphs, and inserting at the beginning of each a brief heading or key to its intention or direction of thought, and, I may add, to the appropriate changes of music. I have, therefore, adopted this plan in a reprint at the end of this paper of the Invitatory Psalm, and the eight Canticles, not in every case falling in with Dr.
Westcott's divisions, which I had not seen when I worked out my own, but much pleased at finding them so often coincide with his. I have taken advantage of this occasion of printing them at length, to exhibit also to the eye the true response form of each verse, and the true manner of chanting between the two sides of the choir, printing the verses, each as a verse or versicle and response, and where necessary, as shown above, venturing to correct the erroneous pointing of the Prayer-book — herein again following the example of Dr.
Westcott in his Psalter — though with perhaps a little of that greater boldness which is allowable to one who claims no authority. The Other Canticles. That question which was most prominent in our dis- cussion of the Te Deum, and which there stood first — the question of origin or authorship — has here no place at all ; but on the other hand the very knowledge, certain and definite, which we have of the occasion, motive, and authorship of the three Evangelical hymns, gives rise in their case to another question which never arose with respect to the Te Deum, The question divides itself into two parts.
First, In what sense are they responsories to the lessons? Secondly, In what sense are they to be adapted to our own personal and Christian use? In Psalms of a period a thousand years more distant from that fulfilment, this witness to the faithfulness of God to His word is naturally less distinct; but even in the Jubilate, the most general act of praise among them, it is heard in the final words, " His truth endureth from genera- tion to generation ; " which, we should observe, is the key- word of that grand Psalm, the Ixxxixth, with which the Church welcomes at Christmas the Incarnation as the fulfilment of God's promise to David.
The Cantate Domino is more explicit — it opens with an expression, " a new song," which has been well understood here and elsewhere by Christians in the sense of a song with a new light thrown upon it by the Incarnation, and a new meaning given thereby to such phrases as — "The Lord declared Heb. But by far the more difficult part of our question remains to be answered ; for the general application of these canticles to their appointed use as responsories is easy and plain compared with the determination of the sense in which some passages are to be by each of us appropriated as personal and Christian acts of worship.
This difficulty also did not present itself to us in the Te Deum, That hymn was written in the full light of the dispensation under which we live, written, as we may say, by one of ourselves, by one occupying our own standpoint, and written for the direct and immediate purpose of being used by us, and used in common and public worship. Furthermore, it speaks, and we speak in its words, of great truths already manifested in facts, and concerning us all equally.
The very absence of any knowledge of the circumstances or character of its author, helps to make its words more unreservedly our own.
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Neither does this diffi- culty arise in our use of the Psalm canticles, which are all of them simple and direct addresses to God or to our fellow-worshippers. And the Benedicite is only less simple than these by the indirectness of its address "through nature up to nature's God ; " for if this call to inanimate and irrational creatures to bless and praise their Creator does 42 The Other Canticles. We have to transport ourselves into their times and surroundings, or we have to adapt their words to our position ; to exercise a faculty, not, probably, very common, of mental assimilation.
The difficulty of doing this is not seldom felt by worshippers ; and if possibly it should seem worse than unprofitable to call attention to it, because it may disturb the satisfaction of some with our services ; it will, I venture to think, work no harm except to those whose past unthinking use of them has done them no good ; while to many the raising and meeting the ques- tion will be a wholesome stimulant and greater eventual satisfaction. This difficulty then, which I know to beset some persons in their attempt to use as their own these venerable hymns, is confined to those of the Blessed Virgin and Simeon and Zacharias.
Now we shall easily see that we conceive of them in one of two aspects, or perhaps we accept both or either, according to the bent of our own minds. First, they may be taken as not being really direct acts of worship at all, but as of the nature of anthems sung for us and appro- priated by us only so far as we acknowledge them, so to say, by acclamation, when we join in the Gloria and Amen at their close. This view certainly sets us free from all perplexity ; but It is certainly not the view generally believed to have been held by those who introduced them into our public worship.
Each worshipper is to utter as in some sense his own the words and thoughts of the Jewish priest, the everblessed Virgin of Galilee, and the aged frequenter of the daily Temple worship, although, besides the difference of their position, they each of them, while giving thanks for a mercy common to all men, refer to favours specially vouch- safed to them only, at least in the primary and natural sense of their words. The question for us is, How shall we adapt — not ourselves to their words or position, which is impossible — but their personal expressions to our per- sonal feelings and circumstances?
Of the three hymns, the Song of the Blessed Virgin is the hardest thus to appropriate, because of the absolutely and sublimely unique position of her whose utterance it is. If, it seems to me, I am to try and use her hymn as my own, it can only be by realizing, which few are taught to do, that in her my nature, my humanity, in its " low estate " through sin, has been "regarded" by God and accepted by Him as the "handmaid" of His loving purpose in the Incarnation — has been "highly favoured," for that now "the Lord is with it," Emmanuel.
I am aware that usually the Blessed Virgin is taken as representing the Church, and the Church as speaking in her, and we in the Church ; and this has such high authority that I hesitate in suggesting that, even if 44 The Other Canticles. The Song of Zacharias presents throughout its greater part no difficulty to those who can but think of themselves as children raised up unto Abraham in his seed which is Christ.
But in the ninth verse, " And thou. Child, shall be called," etc. Here we are forced back into the times and circumstances of Zacha- rias as he addresses his new-born child. Doubtless we too can apostrophize the infant Baptist as one who " shall be " for ever " called the Prophet of the Highest ; " but how to say, with any reality, now, " Thou shait go before the face of the Lord to prepare His ways," I know not, and have often wished for a more satisfactory solution than I find in smothering my sense of incongruity.
It passes away, how- ever, with this one line. The Song of Simeon, though in its origin and its expres- sion it is as much the utterance of a personal experience as the other two, and refers directly to his own approaching death and the happy realization of his own inspired hopes, calls for very little effort of the imagination to any thoughtful spirit, seeing that death is not far from the youngest, and that it has been made bright to us, as to him, by the salvation of God within sight and reach of all. The immediate purpose of these notes is now satisfied ; but it cannot have escaped the reader that this question of The Other Canticles.
Certainly many, not much less than half of the Psalms, are very hard to adapt to our- selves ; and many of them can scarcely have been meant for general use even in their own day. I cannot deny that oftentimes I have looked at a mixed congregation during the recitation of the Psalms, and doubted whether the pious determination of our Reformers that none should be omitted, was not too high-pitched for simple folk and babes in Christ.
It is well, indeed, to appeal, as to a lofty standard of devotion, to the custom of those " ages of faith " when men were found to recite the whole Psalter daily or weekly ; but these were the devout and " religious " who had attained the faculty of ready mystical interpretation and adaptation, and who are represented in our day, if at all, by the few regular attendants at daily prayers, and not by our ordinary Sunday congregations.
It is curious that while on the one hand the Psalms are great favourites for private reading and meditation even among the less well educated, it is not an uncommon thing to find those who have not been used to our Church worship, or who have abandoned it for something else, pointing to the Psalms as the stumbling- block. Certainly no community outside the Church has ever thought of following us in the indiscriminate use of them all, and the American Church has appointed, for Sundays at least, a selection which may be used at dis- cretion. The principle of selection is that of all old services books, even of the Breviary, where the Psalms are used so copiously.
Westcott's Psalter, but with the headings more suited to poor people and to those of slow thought, and accepting without his scholarly scruples our old English translation as their basis, would go far to facilitate the intelligent use of the Psalms and Canticles. Note to pp, 18 and yj on our present Pointing, When it is said that no authority can be found for our present pointing in the Prayer-book, this is not to say that there is no formal authority for its use, for this is of course to be found in the title-page as a part of the Act of Uniformity. What is lacking is moral authority for its correctness.
This we might seek in two directions. We might look for some evidence that one or more scholars of recognized repute in the study of Hebrew poetry had taken any part in its execution. But we have no testimony to such special knowledge in Coverdale or other translators of the Bible of , which 'our Prayer-book version follows. The sign of musical pointing in the Latin Psalters was and is still an asterisk. We cannot show, then, that the Psalms of , or our Psalter which follows it, were consciously pointed for music at all. But neither can we prove that it was not ; and it may be asked.
How otherwise can we account for its being so nearly correct for musical recitation? Simply by the fact that the gram- matical, which in Hebrew poetry is the musical, division is so obvious, that it was rarely possible to avoid inserting the stops colons correctly ; while on the other hand the occasional mistakes, some of them quite obvious, are sufficient to show that the general correctness was not the result of conscious care, except perhaps to the extent of seeing that each verse was divided into two parts, somewhere, to suit the bipartite character of the ancient chant.
The other sort of authority that might be looked for is the pointing of pre- existing ancient Psalters. But here too we fail. In the first place the old Sarum Psalter, taken from the Old Gallican a. The Vulgate, which at least in some editions attempts by means of figures and paragraphs to combine two modes of division of verses, does not help us.
Nor does our own pointing agree with any of these preceding it, nor, it may be added, with the verse-division or the punctuation of the English Bible which succeeded it in 1. Nor can we be surprised at these discrepancies ; The Other Canticles. Instances of this occur in our English Psalter, as in Psa. Our last appeal would naturally lie to the primary authority of the Hebrew Psalter, but to what purpose? Its punctuation, which comes to us only from the later synagogue, is itself no infallible authority. Learned men differ both as to its correctness, and authenticity, and as to the relative value of its many complex signs of punctuation, and still further as to the extent to which they represent musical signs at all, and are not merely elocutionary accents.
But, most conclusive of all for our purpose, it does not as a matter of fact afford any favourable testimony to the correctness of any of the Christian versions. Note to p. While the advocates of the one rest their case on popularity, and those of the other on facility of execution, or the one on musical theory, the other on sentiments of devotion, or while the one is commended as in keeping with the progress of musical art, and the other, with equal reason, as in keeping with the style and tone of the words ancient Oriental chants with ancient Eastern Psahns , or the one despised as the effort of an undeveloped age, the other as the fancy of a degenerate one, — the true test seems to lie in the question — Which best satisfies the original conception of a chant?
The chant simply represents the responsive recitation of the Psalm by two presumably equal bodies of singers, equal, that is, in an average pitch or register of voice. The reciting note is the essential and primary element of the chant, the varied mediation and cadence representing merely the final modulations as in ordinary question and answer, and the natural necessity for relief from bare monotone. Now, as a matter of fact, all the ancient chants have it so. The double chant stands further condemned on a yet more serious charge, for it is almost incompatible with the antiphony of the words.
There are, indeed, a very few Psalms in which it is possible to trace throughout a certain responsiveness between consecutive pairs of whole verses, but even in these the antiphony of the several half- verses is far the most distinct ; so that the only way to be true to the words while using a double chant would be still to divide each verse between Decani and Cantoris, and not, as is now done, each chant of four strains ; in other words, to treat the music as two alternate single chants combined.
Note to Venite, v. Popham, M. And The Canticles, printed as they are on the following pages, are issued separately for use by choirs and congregations, price td, Rivingtons, Xiondon. It was not until the foregoing pages were in print that I had the advantage of seeing an article on the 72? It would have been therefore more correct to render the line, " Thou, when for his deliver- ance Thou would'st take upon Thee man, didst not disdain a virgin's womb.
Jerome was occupied upon the Vulgate, the phrase fell out of favour and was superseded by others, such as "adsumere humanitatem. Deum, or, as I would rather say, for the first section of it, an early date, anterior, it would seem, to the circulation of the Vulgate ; and, secondly, it has led me to notice some other passages or words in the h m[in capable of affording a like comparison with other documents of varying dates, and of throwing light, not only upon the age and origin of the Te Deum as a whole, but also upon that difference in these respects which seems to me to exist between the two sections of the hymn.
There are three such passages in the first section, and two in the second. Of the former we have already seen that two in vv. The third is the Song of the Cherubim in w. It will be found that it is with the fuller form of these latter that it agrees, and most exactly with the Mozarabic, in which alone we find the word "majesty " inserted. When, however, we turn to the only two instances in the second section which afford any opportunity of comparison with more than one document, we see a clearer indication of age, and of an age subsequent to the reception of St.
Jerome's revisions, which we know in the case of the Psalter was tardy and partial. I am indebted to the marginal readings to the Psalter in "Blunt's Annotated Prayer-book " for the discovery that in these five Psalm- verses, which 48 b Postscript. Jerome's later revisions, viz. In both these cases it is the later y not the earlier, version that is followed in this section of our hymn!
These two variant readings are shewn in their places on page 28 ; but at the end of ver. In one place I have ventured, I hope not unjustly, to reproach Church musicians, past and present, for their failure to study and apprehend the real meaning of the antiphony which they recognize by using its terms. I take this opportunity, in self-justification, to add a curious example of this, viz. A call to 1. Let us come before His presence with thanks-giv-ing For He is a Greai 3.
In His hand are all the comers of the Earth : 5. The sea is His and He made it : And this God is our 6. O come let us worship and fall down: 7. The Christian 1. Christ our Passover is sacri-ficed for us : 2. Not with the 61d leaven, nor with the leaven of malice and wicked-ness : ' Death hath n 3.
Christ being raised from the dead, dieth no more : 4. For in that He died He died unto sin once : 5. For since by min came death : 8. For as in Adam ill die : f. King and Creator of all, R. God and we are His people this day, R. Passover, 9. Praise to the 1. To THEE' all angels cry aloud, the heavens and all the powers there-in : 3. The Father, of an infinite maj-es-ty : Thine honourable true and only Son : Praise and prayer 7. O Lord save Thy people and bless Thine herit-age : We declare our constant Vouchsafe, O Lord, to keep us this day with-out sin : O Lord let Thy mercy lighten up-on us : O L6rd have mercy upon us, have mercy up-on us.
Morning Prayer. Let all Creation praise the Creator. Choir i, O all ye works of the Lord, bless ye the Lord : R. The Heavens and all the Powers therein, 2. O ye Angels of the Lord, bless ye the Lord : 9. O ye Heavens, bless ye the Lord : 9. O ye Waters that be above the Firmament, bless ye the Lord R. The Visible Universe, 6. O ye Sun and Moon, bless ye the Lord : R.
O ye Stars of Heaven, bless ye the Lord : R. O ye Showers and Dew, bless ye the Lord : R. O ye Fire and Heat, bless ye the Lord : R. O ye Dews and Frosts, bless ye the Lord : R. O ye Frost and Cold, bless ye the Lord : R. O ye Ice and Snow, bless ye the Lord : 9. O ye Nights and Dajrs, bless ye the Lord : R.
O ye Lightnings and Clouds, bless ye the Lord : R. The Canticles. The Earth and the fulness thereof. O let the Earth bless the Lord : R. O ye Wells, bless ye the Lord : R. O ye Seas and Floods, bless ye the Lord : R. Everything that hath breath, O ye Fowls of the Air, bless ye the Lord : R. O all ye Beasts and Cattle, bless ye the Lord : R. O ye Children of Men, bless ye the Lord : R. The Church of God. O let Israel bless the Lord : R. Those that minister therein. O ye Servants of the Lord, bless ye the Lord : R. Those at rest and those that still serve.
O ye holy and humble Men of heart, bless ye the Lord : R. Those that have borne faithful witness. The Visible Universe, The Earth and the fulness thereof. The Church of God, Those that minister therein. Martyrs in will or deed. Bless ye the Lord : Everything that hath breath, 23 — O let Israel bless the Lord : 28, Bless ye the Lord : Antiphonal Chanting. O' ye Heav-ens : — 9. O' all ye Powers of the Lord :— R.
O' ye Stars of Heav-en : — R. O' ye Winds of God :— R. R O' ye Winter and Sum-mer : — R. O' ye Frost and Cold :— R. O' ye Nights and Days : — R. O' ye Light-nings and Clouds : — R. O' ye Seas and Floods : — R. O' all ye Fowls of the Air :— R. O' ye Child-ren of Men :- R. Morning Prayer ; after the New Testament Lesson.
Blessed be the Lord God of Isra-el : 2. And hath raised up a mighty sal-vation f6r us : which He had promised 3. That we should be saved from our ene-mies : 5. To perform the mercy promised to our forefathers and to] remember His holy co-ve-nant 7, 8. To give knowledge of salvation un-to His peo-ple : Through the tender mercy of our God : O be joyful in the Lord, all ye lands : 2.
For the Lord is gracious, His mercy is ever-Iast-ing Baptist the token of the coming birth of JesuSy and the fulfUment for which we now ptaise Gody using his words.
The Te Deum (cont.)
In the house of His Servant David. Creator and our Preserver, R. Evening Prayer : after the Old Testament Lesson. For He hath regarded the lowliness of His hand-maid-en : 4. For He that is mighty hath magni-fied me : 5. He hath shewed strength with His arm : 7. He hath put down the mighty from their seat : 8. He hath filled the hungry with good things : And the Old Covenant promises 9.
Te Deum laudamus
He hath kept His truth with His people 4. Shew yourselves joyful unto the Lord, all ye lands Praise the Lord up-on the harp : 7. With trumpets also and shawms : 8. Let the sea make a noise and all that therein is : 9. God that He hath raised in her our fcdlen nature from its low purpose toward us in the Incarnation of yesus Christ, R. His righteousness hath He openly shewed in the sight of [the hea-then. Evening Prayer ; after the New Testament Lesson. Lord now lettest Thou Thy servant de-part in peace God be merciful unto us and bless us That Thy way may be known up-on earth ; 3.
O let the nations rejoice and be glad : 5. Let the people praise Thee, O God : 6. God shall bless us :. The One Mediator. John IKmpton, M. By Peter Goldsmith Medd, M. Canon of S. Zvo, i6s. The Annotated Book of Common Prayer. John Henry Blunt, D. The Hymn Te Deum Laudamus. Observations upon its composition and structure, with special regard to the use. Liturgical and Choral, of this and other Canticles and Psalms, and to the true character of the Chant.
Svo, [Nearly re. Selections from the Writings of H, P. Liddon, D. A Treatise on the Clmrck of Christ. By William Palmer, M. Being an attempt to set forth the Functions of the Church as designed to embrace the Whole Race of Mankind. Eight Lectures delivered before the University of Oxford in the year on the Foundation of the late Rev. John Bampton, M. By the Hon. Fremantle, M. Edited by the Rev. By the Lord Bishop of Lichfield. Crown Svo, [In preparation. From Morn to Eve. Bickerstcth, M. I Smo, [In preparation , Maigre Cookery. Edited by H. Sidney Lear. From the Latin of Costerus.
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You Are God: Te Deum / Tú eres Dios
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Second Series of Sermons preached he- fore the University of Oxford, A Review of the Baptismal Controversy. By John Henry Blunt, D.
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